Citation norm

Method of citation

Acta Politologica generally conforms to the Harvard reference style.

Reference style

(author’s last name yearpage)


  • If author’s name is not in the text, insert last name and year: (Skilling 1988)

  • If the author’s name is in the text, follow with year in parentheses: Novák (2016: 41) argues that …

  • Where appropriate, the page number(s) follow(s) the year, separated by a colon: (Smith 2011: 16) or (Smith 2011: 16–18).

  • Where there are two authors, give both names: (Smith, Lawson 2016: 119)

  • If there are four or more authors, use et al.: (Novák et al. 2016: 35-38)

  • If there is more than one reference to the same author and year, insert a, b, etc. : (Novák 2016a: 35-–38; Novák 2016b: 119)

  • Enclose within a single pair of parentheses a series of references, separated by semicolons. Please order alphabetically by author names: (Derby 2015: 16; Mair 1998: 16; Smith 1979: 13).

When the reference is placed at the end of the sentence, it is always followed by colon. Reference shall be given in parentheses.

In case of non-standard resources (on-line links, verbal information, television / radio) a footnote reference in full in order to easily identify resource information is recommended.

Direct quotes

Quoted text” (author’s last name year: page): “Democratic institutions provide the potential for citizen rule, but it is not clear that this potential is realized“ (Roberts 2016: 32).

Direct quotes shall be enclosed by quotations marks and use italics. Longer direct quotes shall be in addition marked with a different type of text (indentation from the left and from the right).

Reference list

Check that the reference list (titled References) is in alphabetical order (treat Mc as Mac). The references are placed at the end of the text.


  • AUTHOR’S LAST NAME, First name (year). Title. Edition. Place: Publishing house.

  • AUTHOR’S LAST NAME, First name; AUTHOR’S LAST NAME, First name (year). Title. Edition. Place: Publishing house.

  • AUTHOR’S LAST NAME, First name et al. (year). Title. Edition. Place: Publishing house.

  • ORGANIZATION/INSTITUTION’S NAME (year). Title. Edition. Place: Publishing house.

Edition is not necessary, if the book was published only as the first edition.

Author’s last name is given in capital letters.

Title of the publication is in italics. In case of a collective work, authors’ names are followed by semi-colon(s).

If the book has more than three authors, first author’s name is followed by “et al.”

If the book has no particular person as an author, the title of the organization that elaborated the book shall be used.

DOI (Digital Object Identifier) is necessary for all references that have been assigned one.

DOI must be given in the URL format:

DOI can be searched on the following link:


  • LIJPHART, Arend. (1999). Patterns of Democracy. Government Forms and Performance in Thirty-Six Countries. New Haven and London: Yale University Press.

  • ALVAREZ, Michael; HALL, Thad (2004). Point, Click & Vote. The Future of Internet Voting. Washington: Brookings Institution Press.

  • UNIVERSITY OF DARWIN (2015). The 2014 Annual Report. Trone City: Hoover.

Edited books

  • AUTHOR’S LAST NAME, First name; ed. (year). Title. Edition. Place: Publishing house.

  • AUTHOR’S LAST NAME, First name; AUTHOR’S LAST NAME, First name; eds. (year). Title. Edition. Place: Publishing house.


  • DALTON, Russell J.; WATTENBERG, Martin P.; eds. (2002). Parties without Partisans. Political Change in Advanced Industrial Democracies. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Book chapter

  • AUTHOR’S LAST NAME, First name (year). Title of the chapter. In AUTHOR’S LAST NAME, First name. Title of the book. Edition. Place: Publishing house, pages.


  • KITSCHELT, Herbert (1990). New Social Movements and the Decline of Party Organisation. In DALTON, Russell J.; KUECHLER, Manfred (eds.). Challenging the Political Order. New Social and Political Movements in Western Democracies. Cambridge: Polity Press, pp. 179–208.

Journal articles

  • AUTHOR’S LAST NAME, First name (year). Title of the article. Name of the journal. Volume, Number, pages.



  • AUTHOR’S LAST NAME, First name (year). Title. Type of the work. Name of the university, name of the faculty. City. Supervisor: supervisor’s name.


  • Miller, John (2009). Pirate parties in a comparative perspective. PhD Thesis. Masarykova univerzita, Fakulta sociálních studií. Brno. Supervisor: Martin Lander.

Electronic resources

Electronic resources shall include all available bibliographic information.

If the author is not available, the institution which elaborated the text is used. If the year is not available, „undated” is used.

Electronic resources must include its type [online] and date when it was retrieved [accessed RRRR-MM-DD].

Electronic book

  • AUTHOR’S LAST NAME, First name (year). Title [online]. Edition. Place: Publishing house [accessed RRRR-MM-DD]. Available from WWW: <full link>.


  • KIPLING, Rudyard (2012). The Jungle Book [online; accessed 2016-07-08]. Available from WWW: <>.

Web sites in general

  • AUTHOR’S LAST NAME, First name (year). Title of the web site [online; accessed RRRR-MM-DD]. Available from WWW: <full link>.


  • OECD (2016). Development Co-operation report [online; accessed. 2016-07-08]. Available from WWW: <>.