|Vliv volební účasti na zisky politických stran ve volbách do Poslanecké sněmovny
|This paper analyses the partisan effect of turnout in the national elections in the Czech Republic in 2006 and 2010. The study utilizes the conventional (compositional) model and two-step defection model as the frameworks for the analysis. The analysis uses individual level data. After introduction of the main individual-level research strategies, it uses three ways of analysing partisan effects of turnout based on Highton-Wolfinger (2001), McAllister-Mughan (1986) and Pettersena-Rose (2007). The results show that higher turnout is advantageous for the parties whose voters lack strong party identification (ČSSD, Green Party, Public Affairs). On the other hand, it brings lower gains to parties with disciplined electorate (especially ODS, but also KDU-ČSL and KSČM). Generally, the partisan effects are context dependent and the main drivers of it seem to be (1.) social inequalities in turnout and party choice, and (2.) the intensity of party identification.
|Pokus o reformu volebního systému pro volby do PS PČR z let 2007 až 2009.
|The article deals with an attempt of the second Mirek Topolánek's government to reform the electoral system for elections to the Chamber of Deputies of the Czech Republic. The first part is focused on the current electoral system. It presents it and examines its various components. The next section then briefly introduced the reform of the electoral system, which was rejected by the Constitutional Court in 2001 and sets out options and limits of the reforming the electoral system in Czech republic. After that, the alternative proposals for reform are very briefly introduced and finally the last part analyzes the final form of a failed attempt to reform. The emphasis is on the design of constituencies, the introduction of a bonus for the winner and the measurement of proportionality of the electoral system. In the conclusion are presented proposals to innovate if necessary of this attempt, so it can better meet firstly its objectives and secondly make that its individual components would be in better compliance.
|Teorie sociálního kapitálu ve výzkumu občanské společnosti
|Social capital refers to ties, networks and norms in the society. The analysis of these elements helps us uncover the basis of the functioning of society. In the 1990’s Robert Putnam used this approach to analyse civil society and described the civic participation of citizen in the U.S. and he marked current weaknesses of the society, which decrease activity of citizens and shrinking their social networks .In this article I will summarize selected theoretical issues of social capital researched by foreign scientists. The aim is to bring this issue to Czech political scientists, who may use the research in the theory of social capital in their empirical studies of different countries. I will outline a development of the definition of social capital, especially in the context of the research into civil society. I will describe its types, preconditions for the growth of social capital and finally, methodology, which may be used in the research on social capital in civil society.
|Michal Nový, Vlastimil Havlík
|Vládnutí v Chorvatsku: Tuđmanova smrt jako impuls pro koaliční spolupráci?
|This article provides an insight into specifics of governance in Croatia from 1990 up to this day. Due to Tuđman´s era in the nineties, we can explore the differences between coalitions in the context of hybrid semipresidential regime and parliamentary democracy. Based on analysis of previous executive configurations, it tries to find the main patterns of party cooperation. In the light of Müller´s and Strøm´s extensive study, the article also deals with three dimensions which are instrumental to comparison of particular governments. It concerns the power of governments in legislative body, their durability and the mechanism of expiration.
|The Financial Good Governance in Europe: What Possibilities for Local Authorities?
|The financial good governance is a current and common topic for all local authorities in Europe, especially in a crisis context but not only. However, because European States rest on a variety of administrative organization and on a diversity of the conception of local autonomy, we cannot say that there is a common pattern of financial good governance for local authorities in Europe. Indeed, according to countries, local authorities can have more or less powers depending on the model of autonomy (fiscal, budget or management autonomy). If their margins of maneuvers can depend on the nature of resources that are allocated to them, real financial possibilities also exist for local authorities whatever the model is, since the financial good governance can be reinforced through the rationalization of local policies, thanks to the digital revolution and through the financial innovation.
|The Transformation of Local Governance through the Digital Revolution in Czech Republic
|At the digital era, local authorities are especially concerned by the implementation of the e-government. Indeed, a new conception of the running of public services has been elaborated since the digitalization is not only a computerization of the administration. Besides, this transformation occurs in public administrations not only at State level but at local level as well. In this context, local authorities are directly concerned by this wide transformation of public services. It means that implementing e-services at local level leads a new conception of the local good governance. This process has been analyzed in Czech Republic where it was necessary to realize a restructuration of some state department to implement changes issued by digitalization. Moreover because public services are decentralized, Czech local authorities are responsible for defining strategies and policies within their spheres of competences. Consequently, local authorities have henceforth a new responsibility due to the intervention of ICT in local governance.
|„Občanské primárky“: Prezidentské primárky ve francouzské Socialistické straně
|NYE, Joseph S. (2011). Future of Power. New York: Public Affairs. 320 pp. ISBN 1610390695.
|COLLIER, Paullier (2009). Miliarda nejchudších. Proč se některým zemím nedaří a co s tím. 1. vydání. Praha: Vyšehrad. 224 s. ISBN: 978-80-7429-010-7.